USA: Effecten van mobiele straling op dierlijke embryo's en foetussen.
woensdag, 06 mei 2009 - Categorie: Onderzoeken
Experimenteel onderzoek met Radio-Frequente straling met lage intensiteit op dierlijke embryo's en foetussen toonde 16 jaar geleden al alarmerende resutaten.
Bron: EMF portal 4 mei 2009
Oorspronkelijk artikel: Am J Ind Med 1993; 24 (2): 579 - 602
Low power density RF-radiation effects on experimental animal embryos and foetuses. med./biol.
By: Xenos TD, Magras IN
In: Stavroulakis P (2003): Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Springer
Aim of study (according to author)
In a series of studies the effects of radiofrequency and microwave irradiation on the prenatal development in small animals were investigated.
The first study was carried out in a natural environment (in situ), while the remaining studies were performed in the laboratory.
Study 1: Mice (n=12) were pregnant five times over a period of six months. The first pregnancy took place on eight selected natural exposure locations (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) in the environment of an antenna-park. Then mice were moved to two locations (A=d and B=h, each n=6). For the fifth pregnancy, all animals were moved to location i (together with one control group (n=6)).
Study 2: Fertilized quail eggs (n=300) were exposed to various levels of radiofrequency irradiation during the first three days of embryonic development. In a further experiment (study 3), 60 quail eggs were exposed and 34 were sham-exposed.
Study 4: 380 fertilized chicken eggs were exposed to different microwaves (CW, PW) and 116 eggs were sham-exposed during the 3rd and 10th day of incubation.
Study 5: Two experiments with each 12 pregnant rats were performed. In the first experiment animals were exposed from the 1st to 3rd day after fertilization and in the second experiment from the 4th to the 9th day of gestation. 10 rats were sham-exposed.
Main outcome of study (according to author)
Study 1: For the experimental groups A and B a progressive decrease of the number of the offsprings from the first to the fifth pregnancy was observed compared to the controls. The crown-rump length, the weight and the number of posterior vertebrae were increased in the newborns from groups A and B compared to the controls. Malformations were scarce and no retardation of skeletal ossification has been observed.
Study 2 and 3: In both studies neither external nor internal malformations were observed, nor significant changes in weight and crown-rump length in both controls or exposed quails. In study 2, more than 16% of the exposed embryos died, while no embryonic deaths have been detected in controls. In study 3, 65% of embryonic and foetal deaths were observed among exposed eggs compared to 11.7% among the controls.
Study 4: 62.78% of the CW- and 47.12% of the PW-irradiated foetuses presented development retardation, post-hatching mortality, severe malformations, embryonic and foetal deaths. Only 3.44% of the sham exposed foetuses presented adverse effects. In the PW-irradiated foetuses a decrease of the pre-hatching period by 48 hours was observed.
Study 5: More than 50% of all exposed groups did not give birth. Examinations of uteri of these rats have shown alterations (e.g. endometritis, nodules) to a great extent. No statistically significant deviations in crown-rump length or weight were observed for controls and newborns from the exposed rats.
Experimental results on various species of experimental animals have indicated adverse effects, strongly varying in intensity, from traceable to very grave, including embryonic and foetal deaths. These effects seem to be more pronounced in the early stages of the embryonic life.
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