StopUMTS Logo
how to get rid of moles 
Zoeken
   
Voorlichting
22/06/18Stralingsarme babyfoon
21/06/18Aarding en advies elektri
Artikelen
22/06/18SAR waarden, Phones emitt
15/06/18The 25% Revolution—How
07/06/18Bees, Birds and mankind D
07/06/18Is your high blood sugar
04/06/18Verstouwbare waterafstote
31/05/18Fatal collision? Are wire
Berichten Nederland
21/06/18Leeuwarden: straling 5G n
18/06/18‘Nederland wordt digita
15/06/18Duurzaam Antennebeleid We
15/06/1816 juni: Internationale E
09/06/18Buurt in Kerkdriel wil ze
Berichten België
16/06/18Scherpenheuvel-Zichem: Be
14/06/18Tommelein laat straling d
Berichten Internationaal
19/06/18Oostenrijk: Wordt uitzend
07/06/18Oostenrijk: Ärztekammer
04/06/18The roll out of 5G wirele
03/06/18Top mobile phone firms wa
Ervaringen | Appellen/oproepen
28/05/18Stralingsarme werkplek
28/05/18Ervaring in Denemarken
23/05/18Energieverbruik 2 keer zo
Onderzoeken
21/06/18Absorption of wireless ra
17/06/18Metabolic and Genetic Scr
12/06/18The human skin as a sub-T
Veel gestelde vragen
13/05/17Vakantie? Witte zo
10/07/16Zeven veel gestelde vrage
Juridische informatie
01/06/18Wetgeving hoogspanningsli
15/05/18Brit dad sues Nokia for u
02/03/18Formal Complaint to the E
Oproepen
15/06/18Stem voor plan voor een w
24/05/18Lezing in Westerhoven: Sm
25/04/18Workshop: EHS en omgaan m
Folders
10/09/17Brochures, folders, websi
29/04/16USA: Meer dan 50 tips voo
Briefwisselingen | Archief: 2008, 2005
28/05/18Elektromagnetische velden
23/05/18Mail naar Brandpunt over
Illustraties
 Algemeen
 Fotoalbum zendmasten
 Wetenschappelijke illustraties
Evaluation of SAR as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects    
Ga naar overzicht berichten in: Onderzoeken

Evaluation of SAR as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects
maandag, 13 maart 2017 - Dossier: Algemeen


Bron: journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0062663
4 juni 2013


Dimitris J. Panagopoulos , Olle Johansson, George L. Carlo

Abstract

Purpose
To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment.

Methods
We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect.

Results
We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured.

Conclusions
SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity.

Citation: Panagopoulos DJ, Johansson O, Carlo GL (2013) Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects. PLoS ONE 8(6): e62663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062663
Editor: Nils Cordes, Dresden University of Technology, Germany

Received: November 21, 2012; Accepted: March 22, 2013; Published: June 4, 2013

Copyright: © 2013 Panagopoulos et al.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zie de link bovenaan voor het volledige artikel en zie verder:
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/annotation/58c704d9-7cc4-4e4b-873b-214e6e2655ba .


Ga terug naar het hoofdmenu
Afdrukken | Vragen | RSS | Disclaimer