Microwave radiation, health guidelines and debate during the last 50 years
maandag, 09 juni 2014 - Categorie: Artikelen
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7 juni 2014
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1. Microwave Radiation, Guidelines and Debate during the Last 50 Years PhD Mikko Ahonen Researcher, University of Tampere mikko.p.ahonen ät uta.fi +358-3-35518069, +358-50-3451528 (SMS) www.uta.fi/~kamiah
2. Table of Contents Intro: Natural microwave radiation and it’s importance Historical reasons for IEEE, FCC & ICNIRP RF- guidelines Guidelines for near-field and far-field exposure. Thermal dogma and limitations of the SAR-concept Russian approach + a need for new, biology-based guidelines Conclusions
3. Background - Mikko Ahonen: • Researcher, including bioelectromagnetics research, University of Tampere, Finland • PhD in computer science • Co-operation: - Researcher Tarmo Koppel, Tallinn Technical University - FinnMedi Ltd - Центр электромагнитной безопасности , RNCNIRP • Worked earlier in the IT&Telecom • Partner, Sustainable Mobile Ltd, RF-measurements
4. Natural (microwave) radiation and it’s importance
5. Natural radiation, special focus on the non-ionising part Earth M agneticField
6. Schumann Resonance, Professor W. O. Schumann (1952) 7.83 Hz , 14.3 Hz, 20.8 Hz, 27.3 Hz Dominant frequency 7,83 Hz Very weak level: 1-10 nT, 0,3 µW/m² Overview: www.scribd.com/doc/228596266
7. Space research and Schumann Resonance - A Schumann-generator needed, designed for space travel - For health reasons (to synchronise brain, EEG for circadian rhythm) - Both for the Sojuz & Apollo -programs - Professor Yuri Grigoriev, RNCNIRP (Russian National Committee on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) EEG
8. What happens when natural EMFs are removed? • Research done in the Max Planck Institute in the 1960’s • In a bunker (Faraday cage) both humans and animals observed. • Lighting changes did not much affect circadian rhythm. BUT when natural EMFs (including Schumann resonance) were removed, the rhythm changed to 33 hour. Caused several stress-related symptoms. Source: Wever (1969), Dowse and Palmer (1969)
9 • By producing an artificial Schumann resonance in the bunker (10 Hz:n frequency, 8,3 µW/m² power density * ), the 24 hour rhythm returned. • (Natural) EMFs has a Zeitgeberfunktion / effect on Circadian Rhythm What happens when natural electromagnetic fields are returned? * Comment: 8,3 µW/m² is about 1/1.000.000-part of official ICNIRP guideline for EMFs. Source: Wever (1969), Dowse and Palmer (1969)
10. Resonance - Beings of Frequency - A document about Schumann Resonance • www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhMFvZFHo2c#t=180 Natural microwave radiation – Schumann Resonance – 7.83 Hz –EEG-synch - required by human beings –< 0,3 µW/m² (a very tiny value)
11. Sferics, cold and warm -front, Föhn-wind, “Wetterfühligkeit” , in kHz-range Before the front: 0,27 µW/m² , During Sferics: 27 µW/m² (causes headache, tiredness, depression for some people, also pain in amputated limbs) (Lotmar et al., 1969; Reiter, 1960; König, 1974)
12. Typical frequencies - During Atmospherics (Sferics) Source:Schippke (2001) Simulated Sferics in a laboratory: Decrease in EEG alpha power Schienle et al. (1998): www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_12_3_schienle.pdf Several kHz, pulsed
13. Man-made electromagnetic fields - overlapping natural radiation
14. Man-made electromagnetic fields Picture: G. Oberfeld
15. Thermal-only ICNIRP-guidelines (for 3G/UMTS) vs. Chronic-exposure non-thermal guidelines (Russia etc.) + BioInititiative recommendations+ RF levels in the nature A note: ICNIRP/FCC-RF-guideline in many Western countries is million times higher than natural RF-level. Icnirp.de Tesla.ru Bioinitiative.org (Radiofrequency (RF) radiation <> Microwave radiation) (Power density unit, microwatts per square meter). 10000000 100000 1000 0,3 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 10000000 ICNIRP Russia BioInitiative Schumann uW/m2
16. Historical reasons for microwave / RF -guidelines
17. Raytheon Military radars and microwave ovens - same guidelines in the USA
18. www.who.int/peh-emf/meetings/southkorea/en/IEEE_Slides_-_Korea_-_Mason.pdf To limit an immediate, excessive and harmful rise in body temperature as a consequence of exposure to high-level RF/MW emissions (radar). Thermal standard document from 1966
19 • Goal is to ensure that marketed devices do not interfere with EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility). • To prevent Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) with other devices • Exposure limits for electric and magnetic fields are all based on the same concepts of body heating and electrostimulation (shocks and burns). standards.ieee.org/develop/project/C95.7.html Critic: www.scribd.com/doc/172703028 EMC-view - thermal standards Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
20. Classics – a book & a thesis ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3148/ http://www.amazon.com/The-Microwave-Debate-Nicholas-Steneck/dp/0262691175
21. Video: A Radiant Day www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9j4WwI49GE http://www.nrk.no/programmer/tv/brennpunkt/1.6292981 NRK documentary - microwave guidelines and their origin
22. Biologist Allan Frey - Microwave hearing - Blood-brain barrier leakage - Chronic 24/7 exposure in focus - Biology-based guidelines Biophysicist Herman Schwan - Heating experiments - Field-force calculations - Short, max 30 min exposure - Physics-Thermal guidelines 1960-1990
23. Thermal-standard, assumptions • In contrast, the nonthermal interaction is still controversial, although, to date, there is only one mechanism of demonstrated validity - field-induced force effects. A field-induced force effect is any movement or rearrangement, on a size scale from molecular to macroscopic, which is the direct result of the presence of an AC or DC electric and/or magnetic field. Sher, L. D., Kresch, E., & Schwan, H. P. (1970). On the Possibility of Nonthermal Biological Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Radiation. Biophysical Journal, 10(10), 970–979.
24. Case: US Embassy in Moscow 1962-1988, chronic microwave exposure by Soviets. The first real test for (US) thermal guidelines? Radiation 50.000-280.000 µW/m² 1-3 antennas, between 8-17 (daily 1/1000-part of US guideline - 2 ambassadors had leukemia - chromosome changes (tested) - several different skin diseases (eczema etc.) - Memory problems, depression - Microwave Illness Source: Lilienfield et al. (1978), Johnson-Liakouris (1998), Goldsmith (1997) ja Lai & Levitt (2010) The conclusions were that no adverse health effects of the radiation were shown. Elwood (2012) ? www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1469943/ , www.scribd.com/doc/54548018
25. • “Many subjective judgements, based on vested interests and limited knowledge melded together by Cold War political and military concerns lie at the very foundations of the thermal paradigm.” (Maisch, 2008, 14)
26. Near Field vs. Far Field Near radiation source: SAR-measurements, W/kg Far away from radiation source: Power density measurements, (µ)W/m²
27. Is temperature rise needed for certain effects? Heavy debate. • Moriyama, E., Salcman, M., & Broadwell, R. D. (1991). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) alteration after microwave-induced hyperthermia is purely a thermal effect: I. Temperature and power measurements. Surgical Neurology, 35(3), 177–182. Alternative views, non-thermal BBB leakage: Frey et al. (1975), Oscar & Hawkins (1977), Salford et al. (1993).
28. Schwan (1988) Herman Schwan was behind those thermal guidelines. In his later writings he described athermal, field force effects on cells .
29. Near-field exposure and SAR-value
30. SAR – Specific Absorption Rate • SAR is a calculated energy absorption in an assumed homogeous mass of tissue. • Simplified explanation: The amount of energy to heat a cup of water. ICNIRP maintains SAR thermal dogma While admitting only acute thermal effects International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection www.icnirp.org/documents/emfgdl.pdf
31. WHO International EMF Project + ICNIRP - Bias? ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (a German private foundation) Honorary chair: Michael Repacholi EU SCENIHR (ICNIRP) + COST 281(ICNIRP) International EMF Project in the WHO. Previous leader: Michael Repacholi Current leader: Emilie Deventer Critic: www.chronicexposure.org/limitsICNIRP.html http://www.icnirp.de .
32. One animal study behind the whole SAR-system It was determined that trained rats stopped working for food at a whole body average SAR exposure of 4 W/kg (D’Andrea et al., 1975). This level of exposure increased core body temperatures measured with rectal thermometers. 10 x “safety factor” -> 0,4 W/kg = population guideline for the FCC. So simple! D’Andrea, J. A., Gandhi, O. P., Kesner, R. P. (1975). Behavioral effects of resonant electromagnetic power deposition in rats. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves HEW Publication (FDA) 778011, I:257–273 (selected papers of the 1975 USNC/URSI Meeting, Boulder, CO).
33. Region / Country -- Reference to -- SAR measuremant protocol Reference to SAR limit Limit Europe European Specification ES 59005 (1998) ICNIRP Guidelines 1998 (ICNIRP 1998) 2.0 W/Kg in 10g of tissue Australia/Canada Various Communications Authority (ACA) Standard (ACA RS 1999) Australian Standard AS/NZS 2772.1 1.6 W/Kg in 1g of tissue US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Guidelines (FCC 1997) American Standard ANSI C95.1 (ANSI 1992) 1.6 W/Kg in 1g of tissue Mobile phone related SAR: Higher exposures allowed in Europe than in U.S -> 1 g versus 10 g
34. Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) is a plastic head mannequin (Beard and Kainz, 2004), based on the 90th percentile of 1989 United States military recruits (Gordon et al., 1989).
35. Comparison: adults and childrenComparison: adults and children Gandhi et al, IEEE T-MTT, vol. 44, N. 10, October 1996, 1884-1897.
(b) The ''Visible Man'' model Cell phone standards are based on a heavy- set 6 foot tall man NOT a young child 900 MHz the SAR maximum occurs in the center of the case (w 15 mm spacer for 10 gm) 1800 MHz SAR max occurs at edge of case, Christ et al, 2010
36. How SAR-testing could be improved?
38. Head models for people of different ages are NOT used to set standards today SAM Duke Billie/female 7 y o Thelonius 3 y o Christ et al, 2010 However, “Virtual Family” MRI&CT-scan based models do exist Gandhi, O. P., Morgan, L. L., de Salles, A. A., Han, Y.-Y., Herberman, R. B., & Davis, D. L. (2012). Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagnetic biology and medicine, 31(1), 34–51. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21999884
39. FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain Algoritm based Simulation • It is based on medical images (MRI + CT-scans). This results the numerical domain where the field is calculated. • Each cell in this domain matrix is associated with a spatial place and tissue in each place. • The permittivity, the electrical conductivity and the mass density are associated to each kind of tissue, as functions of the frequency of operation. • Existing FDTD-models can be used for standard setting! (De Salles, 2009; Gandhi et al., 2012) Brain Muscle Bone Eye Air Skin
40. Chronic, far-field exposure - challenges for standard setting
41. Guidance Levels for 3G vs. natural radiation 10000000 100000 1000 0,3 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 10000000 ICNIRP Russia BioInititive Schumann µW/m² Compare: Thermal 10.000.000 µW/m² vs. nature <0,3 µW/m². Radiofrequency radiation levels measured in µW/m².
42. Radio and TV transmitters: Effect: Dolk et al. (1997a), Hocking & Gordon (2003), Ha et al. (2007), Mascarinec et al. (1994, Michelozzi et al. (2002), Morton & Phillips (1983), Park et al. (2004) More leukemia and lymphoma No effect: Dolk et al. (1997b), Mersenich et al. (2008) Mobile phone base stations: Effect: Abdel-Rassoul et al. (2007), Eger et al. (2004), Hutter et al. (2006), Gadzicka et al. (2004) Navarro et al. (2003), Santini et al. (2003), Wolf & Wolf (2004), Blettner et al. (2008), Eger & Jahn (2010) great variety: from neurological problems to breast cancer No effect: Meyer et al. (2006), Berg-Beckhoff et al. (2009) Khurana et al. (2010) tinyurl.com/TowerEpidemiology http://www.chronicexposure.org EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES NOT CONSIDERED IN ICNIRP STANDARD SETTING
43. A documentary about mast-worker’s illness and guidelines Video:, SAR-measurements (6:30-) www.youtube.com/watch?v=bXe_VWzWaxM A government representative talks about microwave ovens and says that ICNIRP-guidelines protect from similar kind of heating…
44. www.kompetenzinitiative.net http://www.bzur.de/Radar/GUS-Studie.pdf Heavy critic focusing on the ICNIRP and the thermal paradigm by German academicians.
45. Analogy: ELF&RF vs. Lead “The policy would “keep attention focused on old, leaded paint as the source of pollution and make clear that other sources of lead are not significantly involved.” David Michaels – Doubt is their product (2008, 43) Evolving: Radar Powerlines Mobile phones Base stations Wi-Fi ??
46. “The vilification of any research that might threaten corporate interests as “junk science” and the sanctification of its own bought-and-paid-for research as “sound science” is indeed Orwellian- and nothing less than standard operating procedure today.” Michaels (2008, 43) Late lessons from early warnings? www.eea.europa.eu/publications/late-lessons-2 .
47. Paradigm shift? FDA approves a new device for treating liver cancer (comment: no heat is produced) ”Treated with very low levels of an electromagnetic field emitting from a spoon-like device placed in the patients’ mouths. … After six months, the tumors in 14 patients had stabilized after each received three one-hour treatments per day each day; the therapy created no significant side effects.” Clinical trials / 3 publications in the British Journal of Cancer : Zimmerman et al. (2012) Costa et al. (2011) Barbault et al. (2009). Operating at 27.12 MHz, Pulses between 100 Hz–21 kHz www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134506 Overview of PEMF (Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields) -area: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3261673/ .
48 • The WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified in 2011 radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (=microwave radiation) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). So far, no effect on standard setting. Latest IARC/WHO classification: www.iarc.fr/en/mediacentre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol80/volume80.pdf ec.europa.eu/research/quality-of-life/ka4/pdf/report_reflex_en.pdf http://www.law.harvard.edu/news/2011/11/18_safra-center-cellphone-radiation-corruption.html .
49. Precedents, insurance policies and class actions suits EU- Precedent: Italy 2012: Salesman Innocente Marcollini. Had used several years a mobile phone and a DECT- phone at his workplace, got a tum to his head, was fully compensated for the work- based injury tinyurl.com/ennakkotapauskannykka Now in 2014 the insurance giant Swiss Re has classified RF+ELF to be included in the highest (observed) risk class. tinyurl.com/vakuutusriski ) Pressure from insurance companies may affect standard setting
50. Far-field exposure guideline for 3G 10000000 100000 1000 0,3 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 10000000 ICNIRP Russia BioInititive Schumann µW/m² Compare: Thermal, acute (ICNIRP) 10.000.000 µW/m² vs. Russia 100.000 µW/m². Radiofrequency power density levels measured in µW/m².
51. Eastern European standards for microwaves, depend on exposure time Difference: Continuous Vs Pulsed signal Compare to Western / US guidelines: 10 mW/cm2 Hecht et al. (2009) Czerski, P. Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits in Eastern Europe. J Microwave Power, 1985
52. Russia: Guidelines based on immunological studies and chronic exposure – 100.000 µW/m² • Earlier research: Shandala et al. 1983, Vinogradov and Naumenko 1986 and Vinogradov et al. 1991: chronic exposure results a weakened immune system. • Wistar rats were exposed in the far field to 2450MHz continuous wave RF fields with an incident power density in the cages of 5W/m2 for 7 h/day, 5 days/week for a total of 30 days, resulting in a whole- body SAR of 0.16 W/kg Immune system effect again. (Grigoriev et al., 2010) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21452364 .
53. Reason for the biological-effects –focused guideline in Russia • The exposure limits for EMF established in the USSR in the 1970s were based on restricting to levels that did not result in a ‘‘status of permanent compensation’’ (the body having to permanently compensate for the effects of EMF), since this may lead to a reduction in protective capabilities and result in possible development of pathological processes several years later. (RNCNIRP, 2003) www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/reports/en/russia.pdf .
54. A prerequisite for non-thermal effects? Experimental findings have also demonstrated that low-frequency pulse modulation of radio frequency EMF is necessary to induce changes in the waking and sleep EEG, and that pulse modulation is crucial for radio frequency EMF-induced alterations in brain physiology (Huber et al. 2002, Huber et al. 2005, Hinrikus et al. 2008 ).
55. Important biological and biomedical question: • What are those tissue mechanisms in detection of amplitude- and pulse- modulation of RF/microwave fields? (Adey, 1999) Not yet answered!
56. One paper challenges the whole thermal guideline system? • Pall, M. L. (2013). Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage- gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 17(8):958-65 Picture: www.landesbioscience.com/books/iu/id/854 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802593 .
57. Magnetosense - Chryptochrome www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n6/full/ncomms1364.html http://www.andrewamarino.com/PDFs/158-IntJRadiatBiol2009.pdf tinyurl.com/eilampo Professor Andrew Marino: Non-linear signal analysis is needed !!
59. A Need for new, biology-based standards Work of professor Dariusz Leszczynski: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18267023 + Bio-indicator studies of insects ( like Margaritis et al. 2013) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22676645 .
60. ''Observation of these modulation frequency - dependent bioeffects would appear to raise significant questions concerning the validity of continued use of thermally based Specific Absorbtion Rate (SAR) as a universally valid predictor of bioeffects attributable to RF field exposure.” W. Ross Adey (Review of Radio Science, 1996-1999. Oxford Univ.Press,1999, pp 845- 872)
61. “Given the sheer number of people exposed to RF/MW from telecommunications devices, there is an urgent need to reform the standard setting process and to conduct an international re-assessment of the biological limits placed on current RF/MW standards.” Maisch (2009)
62. Questions and comments welcome! PhD Mikko Ahonen E-mail: Mikko .p. ahonen ät uta . fi WWW: www.uta.fi/~mikko.p.ahonen/ Telephone: +358-3-35518069, +358-50-3451528 (SMS) Skype: AhosMikko Blog 1: beyondradiation.blogs.com Blog 2: mikkoahonen.puheenvuoro.uusisuomi.fi .
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