Discussie DNA-schade niet gesloten

zaterdag, 06 september 2008 - Categorie: Artikelen

Een update en extensie van ons artikel van 5 september 2008 in de rubriek onderzoeken. Deze update speciaal voor het Antennebureau dat doorgaat de burgers in Nederland, maar ook de beleidsmakers en het ambtelijke apparaat te desinformeren:

De discussie over toenemen van schade aan DNA, toenemen van micronuclei en wijzigingen van chromosomen als gevolg van straling van mobiele telefonie (niet door opwarming en niet door ionisatie te verklaren) is absoluut niet gesloten, zoals sommigen suggereren. Zie het bericht van 3 september 2008 op www.microwavenews.com

Tenminste 11 onderzoeken wijzen op toenemende DNA-breuken door straling van mobiele telefonie:

R.J. Aitken et al., ''Impact of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on DNA Integrity in the Male Germline,'' International Journal of Andrology, 28, pp.171-179, 2005 (Australia);
W. Baohong et al., ''Studying the Synergistic Damage Effects Induced by 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Field Radiation (RFR) with Four Chemical Mutagens on Human Lymphocyte DNA Using Comet Assay in Vitro,'' Mutation Research, 578, pp.149-157, 2005 (China);
W. Baohong et al., ''Evaluating the Combinative Effects on Human Lymphocyte DNA Damage Induced by Ultraviolet Ray C Plus 1.8 GHz Microwaves Using Comet Assay in Vitro,'' Toxicology, 232, pp.311-316, 2007 (China);
G. Gandhi and Anita, ''Genetic Damage in Mobile Phone Users: Some Preliminary Findings,'' Indian Journal of Human Genetics, 11, pp.99-104, 2005 (India);
J. Kim et al., ''In Vitro Assessment of Clastogenicity of Mobile-Phone Radiation (835 MHz) Using the Alkaline Comet Assay and Chromosomal Aberration Test,'' Environmental Toxicology, 23, pp.319-327, 2008 (Korea).
S. Lixia et al., ''Effects of 1.8GHz Radiofrequency Field on DNA Damage and Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Human Lens Epithelial Cells,'' Mutation Research, 602, pp.135-142, 2006 (China);
J. Phillips et al., ''DNA Damage in Molt-4 T-Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed to Cellular Telephone Radiofrequency Fields in Vitro,'' Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 45, pp.103-110, 1998 (U.S.);
T. Nikolova et al., ''Electromagnetic Fields Affect Transcript Levels of Apoptosis-Related Genes in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells,'' The FASEB Journal, 156, pp.495-502, 2001 (Germany);
K. Yao et al., ''Effect of Superposed Electromagnetic Noise on DNA Damage of Lens Epithelial Cells Induced by Microwave Radiation,'' Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 49, pp.2009-2015, 2008 (China).
K. Yao et al., ''Electromagnetic Noise Inhibits Radiofrequency Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Reactive Oxygen Species Increase in Human Lens Epithelial Cells,'' Molecular Vision, 19, pp.964-969, 2008 (China).
D. Zhang et al., ''Effects of GSM 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on DNA Damage in Chinese Hamster Lung Cells,'' Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40, pp.149-152, 2006 (China, in Chinese).

Afwijkingen van de chromosomen zijn ook gevonden:

L. Manti et al., ''Effects of Modulated Microwave Radiation at Cellular Telephone Frequency (1.95 GHz) on X-Ray-Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes in Vitro,'' Radiation Research, 169, pp.575-583, 2008 (Italy);
M. Mashevich et al., ''Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Cellular Phones Leads to Chromosomal Instability,'' Bioelectromagnetics, 24, pp.82-90, 2003 (Israel);
P. Sykes et al., ''Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation on Intrachromosomal Recombination in pKZ1 Mice,'' Radiation Research, 156, pp.495-502, 2001 (Australia).

Toenemende schade aan DNA door straling vergelijkbaar met die van mobiele telefonie:

H. Lai and N.P. Singh, ''Acute Low-Intensity Microwave Exposure Increases DNA Single-Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells,'' Bioelectromagnetics, 16, pp.207-210, 1995 (U.S.);
H. Lai and N.P. Singh, ''Single- and Double-Strand DNA Breaks in Rat Brain Cells After Acute Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation,'' International Journal of Radiation Biology, 69, pp.513-521, 1996 (U.S.);
R. Paulraj and J. Behari, ''Single-Strand DNA Breaks in Rat Brain Cells Exposed to Microwave Radiation,'' Mutation Research, 596, pp.76-80, 2006 (India);
S. Sarkar et al., ''Effect of Low-Power Microwave on the Mouse Genome: A Direct DNA Analysis,'' Mutation Research, 320, pp.141-147, 1994 (India);
M. Zhang et al., ''Study of Low-Intensity 2450 MHz Microwave Exposure Enhancing the Genotoxic Effects of Mitomycin C Using Micronucleus Test and Comet Assay in Vitro,'' Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 15, pp.283-290, 2002 (China);
M. Zhang et al., ''Effects of 2450 MHz Microwave on DNA Damage Induced by Three Chemical Mutagens in Vitro,'' Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, 21, pp.266-269, 2003 (China, in Chinese).

Ook als er onderzoeken zijn waarbij geen toenemende schade wordt gevonden, is dat geen reden om de discussie te sluiten. Wetenschap is geen boter, kaas en eieren.



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